The region roughly encompassing the present state had many Buddhist vihāras, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. It has ten colleges. Bihar covers a total area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi), with an average elevation above sea level of 173 feet (53 m). The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Research indicates that Bihar relies on privatised hospitals to provide healthcare to the masses, with the second-highest ratio among Indian states for private to public spending and high levels of corruption. The history of films entirely in Bhojpuri begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. On 28 February 2014, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar laid the foundation stone. Many varieties of local and migratory bird species can be seen in natural wetlands of Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, Baraila lake, Kusheshwar Nath Lake, Udaypur lake. [135], The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) had success at the box office. Those who practised this art form were descendants of Hindu artisans of Mughal painting. An eighth state engineering college began construction in December 2013 at Begusarai,[146][147] while two others are planned at Madhepura and Sitamarhi.

[68][69] Maithili is a recognised regional language of India under the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India. 1927), and Imperial Agriculture Research Institute (est. [33][36][page needed] The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila. Smaller communities of Bengali and Santali speakers are found in the eastern districts of the state. [87][88] While the National Health Mission, the Clinical Establishments Act of 2010, and the formation of the Empowered Action Group (EAG)[89] provide federal funds to expand and improve healthcare services, Bihar's ability to fully utilise this funding is lacking.[87][88]. It was also India's most densely populated state, with 1,106 persons per square kilometre. [114] Singh, in another book on Indian classical music, wrote that "Kumar Shyamanand Singh of Banaili estate had such expertise in singing that many great singers including Kesarbai Kerkar acknowledged his ability. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir, that Champanagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical music.

At the time of independence, women's literacy in Bihar was 4.22%. [38][39], The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy.

[4] Almost 58% of Bihar's population was below 25 years age, which is the highest in India.

[122] Since 2010, the government confiscated the properties of corrupt officials and redeployed them as schools buildings. In 2016 the government of Bihar established Patliputra University, Munger University, Purnea University through Bihar state university bill. [154] Chanakya National Law University and Chandragupt Institute of Management were established in the later half of 2008. These films did much better business in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and were both made on extremely tight budgets. However, this trend faded during the 1990s. [63], Most of Bihar's population belongs to Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic groups. The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. [159][160][161], NIT Patna is the second oldest engineering college of India. [94] Given the high population density of the state, Bihar is significantly behind in the number of healthcare professionals that should be employed. [100] The main agricultural products are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady's finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and sunflower.

High rainfall (above 1,600 mm [63 in]) promotes forests of Sal (Shorea robusta) in these areas. The tenth and the last guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh, was born in Patna in 1666. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha.

[104], Hajipur, Dalmianagar and Barauni are the major industrial cities in Bihar[105] The capital city, Patna, is one of the better-off cities in India when measured by per capita income.[relevant? 1839), Bihar School of Engineering (est. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. Executive power rests with the chief minister and their cabinet. The political party or coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the government. Nagi Dam and Nakti Dam have been declared as bird sanctuaries. It is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The government of Bihar established Bihar Animal Science University in 2017.

[111][112], In terms of income, the districts of Patna, Munger, and Begusarai placed highest among the 38 districts in the state, recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of ₹31,441, ₹10,087 and ₹9,312, respectively, in FY 2004–05.[106].

A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts,[59] with common trees including Shorea robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (asan), Terminalia bellerica (bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (arjun), Pterocarpus marsupium (paisar), and Madhuca indica (mahua).

Retrieved 16 August 2014. It is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. Detailed political map of Bihar state of India.

[35] Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic Ramayana, written by Valmiki. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India. [82] It also legislated a two-hour lunch break on Fridays, to enable Muslim employees to pray and thereby reduce absenteeism. Painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, births, marriages, and other cultural milestones. The Ganges flows west–east and, along with its tributaries, regularly floods parts of the Bihar plain.

[58] Karkatgarh Waterfall on Karmanasa River is a natural habitat of crocodiles. In contrast to prior governments, which emphasised divisions of caste and religion, his political platform was based on economic development, reduction of crime and corruption, and greater social equality. [100] Bihar's per capita income went up by 40.6% in FY 2014–15. [90][91][92][93] Corruption is enabled as Bihar lacks continuity and transparency of health reporting as required by the Clinical Establishments Act of 2010. Bihar has reserved forest area of 6,845 km2 (2,643 sq mi), which is 7.27% of its geographical area. The overall annual intake of students of these technical institutes in Bihar is only 6,200. 22, Issue 2, pp. [144] Bihar is striving to increase female literacy, now at 53.3%. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started in Patna, in 1901. Gaya is another centre of classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri varieties. [15] The official languages are Hindi and Urdu, although other languages are common, including Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri and other Bihari languages. [117][better source needed]. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Udyoga, and Chaitanya Chandrika. It is dominated by a vast stretch of fertile plain which is divided unevenly by the Ganges River. Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world,[139] with about 24 million tourists visiting the state each year. The map shows the location of Bihar on India map and the districts along with district headquarters.

The bifurcation of Bihar took place on November 15, 2000, and a new state Jharkhand was born. [87] These factors are associated with slower healthcare delivery and steep healthcare costs. In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. [13] Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. In 2007, NIT Patna was granted Institute of National Importance status, in accordance with the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007.

[12] Bihar is also the world's third-most populous subnational entity. [18] Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan, from Dumraon, Bihar. – discuss], Prior to prohibition, Bihar emerged as a brewery hub with numerous production units.

By sectors, its composition is 22% agriculture, 5% industry and 73% services. 783 CE).

This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 10:20.



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