Figure 30: Satellite Ground Control System (SGCS), image credit: ETRI. The satellite features a box-shaped structure, built around the two bi-propellant tanks. 7-12, 5) Mi-Lim Ou, “Introduction to the COMS Program and its Application to Meteorological Services of Korea,” Proceedings of the 2005, EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Sept. 19-23, 2005, 6) J.-M. Shim, “Korea Geostationary Satellite Program: Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS),” Proceedings of the 2006 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 12-16, 2006, 7) Space Programs in Korea, Dec. 2006, URL: http://www.aprsaf.org/data/aprsaf13_data/7_Space%20Program%20Korea_KARI_final_061205_1330day1.pdf, 8) Hyo-Sang Chung, “Introduction to the COMS Program and Development of COMS Meteorological Data Processing System,” CIMSS Silver Symposium, Madison, WI, USA, July 12, 2005, URL: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/cimss25th/presentations/chung.pdf, 9) Chin Young Hwang, “Recent Remote Sensing Activities in the Republic of Korea,” Proceedings of the 49th Session of UNCOPUOS-STSC (UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space-Scientific and Technical Subcommittee), Vienna, Austria, Feb. 6-17, 2012, URL: http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/pres/stsc2012/tech-24E.pdf, 10) Dominique Pawlak, Daniel Galindo, “COMS Mission,” Proceedings of the 57th IAC/IAF/IAA (International Astronautical Congress), Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2-6, 2006, IAC-06-B1.6.04, 11) Kum-Lan Kim, “Korean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) : New Opportunity for Disaster Risk Reduction,” 14th WMO RA-II Meeting, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Dec. 2-13, 2008, 12) Thierry Benchetrit, Eric Maliet, Hervé Lambert, Xavier Sembely, “Optical Earth Observation from the geostationary orbit - A concrete case: the COMS mission,” Proceedings of ASTRO 2010, 15th CASI (Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute) Conference, Toronto, Canada, May 4-6, 2010, 13) http://www.astrium.eads.net/en/programme/coms.html, 14) Hyun-Su Lim, Sang-Il Ahn, “COMS LRIT/HRIT Service Characteristics,” Proceedings of the 60th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Daejeon, Korea, Oct. 12-16, 2009, IAC-09.B1.4.9, 15) “Ariane 5 launches Arab and South Korean satellites,” Spaceflight Now, June 26, 2010, URL: http://spaceflightnow.com/ariane/v195/, 16) “South Korea To Launch Weather-CommSat In 2010,” Space Mart, Nov. 9, 2009, URL: http://www.spacemart.com/reports/South_Korea_To_Launch_Weather_CommSat_In_2010_999.html, 17) Young-Min Cho, “Two Years of COMS Normal Operation for Earth Observation Mission,” Proceedings of the 64th International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2013), Beijing, China, Sept. 23-27, 2013, paper: IAC-13-B6.P.4. MI interleaves frequent, small area scans with a full Earth disk scan to deliver regular global data and evolving events. Each band coverage of GOCI and those estimated SNR value are listed in Table 4. communications services in Ka-band, all from its orbital locations 116º and 138° East. The Ka-band payload system was designed to be capable of the communication service function among the individual beams. COMS-1 is a geostationary meteorological satellite program of Korea with multifunctional applications in the fields of: 1) Experimental communications : a) in-orbit verification of developed communication technology, b) experiment of wide-band multimedia communication service The change of radiometric response will be corrected periodically through in-orbit calibration using the on-board calibration devices.

48), Figure 13: Illustration of the detector array, shown with temporary window (image credit: Astrium). 117, C09004, 2012, 19) David Doxaran, et al., “New applications with geostationary ocean color radiometry - Dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in river plumes,” International Ocean Color Science (IOCS) Meeting, Darmstadt, Germany, May 6-8, 2013, URL: http://iocs.ioccg.org/wp-content/uploads/1337-david-doxaran-geo-may-2013-iocs.pdf, 20) Menghua Wang, Seunghyun Son, Lide Jiang, Wei Shi, “Ocean Diurnal Variations Measured by the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager,” International Ocean Color Science (IOCS) Meeting, Darmstadt, Germany, May 6-8, 2013, URL: http://iocs.ioccg.org/wp-content/uploads/1420-seunghyun-son-iocs-2013-goci-oral.pdf, 21) Robert Frouin, “Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation at the Ocean Surface from GOCI Data,” International Ocean Color Science (IOCS) Meeting, Darmstadt, Germany, May 6-8, 2013, URL: http://iocs.ioccg.org/wp-content/uploads/1344-robert-frouin-iocs-darmstadt-goci.pdf, 22) Jong-Kuk Choi, Young-Je Park, Joo-Hyung Ryu, “Application of Geostationary Satellite Images to the monitoring of dynamic variations,” International Ocean Color Science Meeting 2013, Darmstadt, Germany, May 6-8, 2013, URL: http://iocs.ioccg.org/wp-content/uploads/1330-jong-kuk-choi-2013-iocs-darmstadt-cjk.pdf, 23) “Tracing Marine Sand Gathering Discovered by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” KOSC, August 20, 2013, URL: https://navigator.gmx.net/navigator/show?sid=4a09ecc1a535e17c72cfb17b36b5c5eb209ef276834491e8#mail, 24) http://kosc.kiost.ac/kosc_web/GOCI_download/SatelliteData.html, 25) Young-Min Cho, “COMS Normal Operation for Earth Observation Mission,” Proceedings of SPIE Remote Sensing 2012, 'Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites,' Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, Vols. The Ocean Imager will 58). This high accuracy pointing assembly used to select slots centers is able to position the instrument LOS anywhere within a 4º cone, with a pointing accuracy better than 0.03º (500 µrad). - The versatility of the missions and the adaptability of the platform have pushed to affectionately nickname the satellite as a “Swiss knife” satellite, and it is found that this nickname is well deserved (Ref. The instrument is an off-the-shelf model of ITT-A/CD [ITT Industries Inc. Aerospace/Communications Division (Fort Wayne, IN, USA)]. FDS is made up of six major functions and three supporting functions. peninsula and provide data (on chlorophyll etc) to assist the fishing industry in the • After one full year in orbit in the late summer of 2011, the COMS satellite is behaving beautifully and meets all requirements whether in terms of image quality (radiometrically and geometrically), or in terms of availability, and fuel consumption. Generally, the performance indicators are GSD (Ground Sample Distance), MTF (Modulation Transfer Function), and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) that verify the optical performance of payload.

The SOC (Satellite Operation Center) has also backup functions of raw data reception, preprocessing, and LRIT/HRIT dissemination service (Ref. COMS carries following payloads:

14), Figure 3: Block diagram of the spacecraft functional architecture (image credit: EADS Astrium SAS), Figure 4: Photo of the COMS-1 spacecraft in its final integration stage, prior to shipment to Kourou (image credit: EADS Astrium), Launch: The COMS-1 satellite was launched on June 26, 2010 (UTC) on Ariane-5 ECA from Kourou, French Guiana.
Figure 25: Transponder design layout (image credit: SI), South Korea: beam center at 127.44º E, 35.08º N


5, and May 8, 2011. In addition, provision of a beam switching function for high-speed multimedia services including the internet via satellite in the public communications network for all coverage regions. Orbit of COMS-1: Geostationary orbit at the longitude of 128.2º E, altitude of ~ 35,786 km. In the overall architecture of the system, the ground segment features the following elements: • CDAS (Command and Data Acquisition System) for the services of command transmission, all data reception, tracking and ranging, and data product relay, • SOCC (Satellite Operations and Control Center) for the services of spacecraft monitoring and control, mission planning, and flight dynamics analysis 54) 55) 56) 57) 58). FDS also provides COMS operation related functions such as oscillator updating parameter calculation, sensor interference management, and Earth acquisition parameter calculation after emergency sun reacquisition.

The L-band and S-band frequencies are being used to transmit all MI and GOCI data.

Attitude sensing in normal mode is based on a hybridized Earth sensor and a gyros concept; in addition, sun sensors are being used during 3-axis transfer operations. Chollian, (Korean: 천리안, lit. Arabsat-5A was mounted atop the SYLDA, with COMS-1 underneath it. The satellite, operating from geostationary orbit, will provide services for

COMS is KARI's first geostationary satellite and will provide Korea with its own Figure 31 shows the functional structure of the FDS and its interfaces with TTC, ROS, and MPS. In May 2005, EADS Astrium SAS received a contract award from KARI to design and manufacture the first Korean multifunctional geostationary satellite as well as the MI and GOCI payloads (prime contractor). Figure 14: Photo of the GOCI pointing mechanism without mirror (image credit: Astrium).

The plan prospects the details of the future space activities of Korea until 2015 and serves as a basis for space development in Korea. - Highly variable sea surface turbidity was detected by GOCI around the deposits, which is considered to be caused by the suspended sand coming off the bottom of the water when the marine sand was gathered. 34). The raw data of MI and GOCI payloads transmitted are being acquired and preprocessed at MSC (Meteorological Satellite Center) and KOSC (Korea Ocean Satellite Center), respectively. In particular, COMS has been focusing on the Korean Peninsula 8 times an hour to expect early detect of abrupt high-impact weather events such as typhoons and summertime heavy rains which frequency increase by a factor of 4 compared with the past.

[9] Its mission is scheduled to last seven years,[4] however the satellite has a design life of ten years. The handover followed in-orbit acceptance of the satellite, which was successfully completed on March 17, 2011.28) 29). • METRI/KORDI (Meteorological Research Institute/), Seoul, provide the user requirements of meteorological and ocean monitoring payloads, • ETRI (Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute), Daejeon, provides the communications payload development, the satellite control system development, and ground station co-development.


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