The people of Toltecs in general are also well known as skilled agriculturists that produced a large amount of maize and naturally coloured cottons. For more details, see our Privacy Policy. Required fields are marked *. During Teotihuacán's age of dominance, shortly before the rise of the Toltecs, the gulf coast cultures had been an important force in Mesoamerican commerce, and Davies believes that the combination of Tula's location in the center of Mexico, their low production of trade goods, and their reliance on tribute over commerce placed the Toltecs at the fringes of Mesoamerican trade at the time (Davies, 284). Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. However, in the city of Tollan, there were signs of violent destruction and the site was looted by the Aztecs. A great deal of utilitarian Mazapan-style pottery has been found there, suggesting that Tula was, or was not far from, a place that produced it. One of the best examples of Toltec architecture is the site at Chichen Itza. A group of around 5 houses with flat roof arranged around a courtyard constitutes one unit of domestic housing surrounded by a wall with a single altar in it. The empire is believed to have slowly disintegrated through a combination of natural phenomena such as drought, famine and internal dispute. The Toltecs interacted with societies of the Mesoamerican that in turn influenced each other’s culture. If you continue to use this site, you agree with it. The surviving Toltecs under the leadership of Huemac settled at Cahpultepec on the banks of the Lake Texcoco. The Toltec empire was an empire, most likely a group of Mesoamericans who fled at the fall of the Teotuhican, centered on Tula, which spread north, and as far south as Yucatan and Guatemala. As the major deity of the Toltecs, Quetzalcoatl wore many hats. However, there are a lot of monuments still surviving. Bernardino de Sahagún, a colonial era chronicler, claimed that the people of Tollan were skilled metalworkers, but no metal not of later Aztec origin has been found at Tula.
The exact reason for the decline of the Toltec is not known but they ruled a substantial portion of the Basin of Mexico until the mid of 1100 BCE when they abandoned their capital city. We, at Ancient-Civilizations.com, focus on creating well-researched knowledge based articles to provide the readers the best information on ancient history, ancient civilizations, ancient empires, ancient tribes and peoples, and much more. The "Toltec Empire" was a semi-mythical origin story told by the Aztecs. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 2012. The Maya were dedicated merchants whose trade routes reached far from their Yucatan homeland, and even the ancient Olmec - the mother culture of all of Mesoamerica - traded with their neighbors. By the time the Toltec culture reached prominence, military conquest and subjugation of vassal states were on the rise at the expense of trade, but even wars and conquest stimulated cultural exchanges. Davies, Nigel. For example, although ​jade was one of the most important trade materials in ancient Mesoamerica, only one jade piece has been found at Tula. It is believed that it had a very strong military base with a warrior aristocracy. Was Greta Van Susteren a defense attorney in the OJ Simpson case?

The city expanded to an area of 14 sq. The architecture of both domestic as well as religious structure had flat roof. Religion was central to the society with multiple gods. The Toltec did have significant agriculture and possibly exported part of their crops. Proof of extensive trade networks may have therefore been carried off long ago. The Toltec Civilization dominated central Mexico from about 900 - 1150 A.D. from their home city of Tollan (Tula). The city was also known to be rich while its skilled craftsmen and potters earned a lot of wealth for it. The empire is believed to have slowly disintegrated through a combination of natural phenomena such as drought, famine and internal dispute. It is possible that the Toltecs dealt in more perishable items like food, cloth or woven reeds which would have deteriorated with time. The Toltec empire was an empire, most likely a group of Mesoamericans who fled at the fall of the Teotuhican, centered on Tula, which spread north, and as far south as Yucatan and Guatemala. The historical record seems to suggest that Tula did not produce much in the way of trade goods. Cobean, Robert H., Elizabeth Jiménez García and Alba Guadalupe Mastache. Ancient-Civilizations.com participates in the Amazon Associate program and earns money from qualifying purchases. Learn how your comment data is processed. Charles River Editors. The Aztecs venerated Quetzalcoatl as (among other things) the god of merchants: the post-conquest Ramirez Codex mentions a feast dedicated to the god by traders. They used several agriculture techniques including irrigation and terrace farming and were famous for herbal medicines. Coe, Michael D and Rex Koontz. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Surprisingly, the Fine Orange pottery associated with the contemporary Totonac culture has not been found at Tula. All Rights Reserved. Toltec stone sculpture was enormous and mostly depicted their religious beliefs and the society. The Toltecs - Semi-Mythical Legend of the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl - Pan-Mesoamerican Feathered Serpent God, The Founding of Tenochtitlan and the Origin of the Aztecs, Tezcatlipoca: Aztec God of Night and Smoking Mirrors, Cultures Rise and Fall on the Mesoamerica Timeline, Toltecs' fanatical devotion to Quetzalcoatl.
Norman: the University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. Lexington: Charles River Editors, 2014. The Toltec Civilization dominated central Mexico from about 900 - 1150 A.D. from their home city of Tollan (Tula). Many architectural columns and statues were burnt and buried. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2008. According to legends, the city of Tollan was abandoned because of a civil war; ho… The principal Aztec god of trade, Yacatechutli, has been traced to earlier roots as a manifestation of either Tezcatlipoca or Quetzalcoatl, both of whom were worshiped at Tula. Toltec architecture was a blend of Toltec and Mayan cultures. Stay updated with our Newsletter and get Exclusive Content straight to your inbox. Their pottery included both ceremonial as well as practical items such as the cooking pots, tableware, storage jars etc. Form is being submitted, please wait a bit.


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