R is the internal energy of the system. {\displaystyle V} g a {\displaystyle n} × Typical units for volume are Liquids, however, are nearly incompressible, thus their volumes can be often taken as constant. [1] In many cases the specific volume is a useful quantity to determine because, as an intensive property, it can be used to determine the complete state of a system in conjunction with another independent intensive variable. × p 1 {\displaystyle \nu } ν H 310 {\displaystyle V_{2}=V_{1}\times {\frac {T_{2}}{T_{1}}}\times {\frac {p_{1}-p_{w,1}}{p_{2}-p_{w,2}}}}. {\displaystyle \mathrm {l} } = Hence volume is an important parameter in characterizing many thermodynamic processes where an exchange of energy in the form of work is involved. is the energy lost to a system due to mechanical work. = w P To compare gas volume between two conditions of different temperature or pressure (1 and 2), assuming nR are the same, the following equation uses humidity exclusion in addition to the ideal gas law: V l × Conversely, decreasing temperature would also make some water condense, again making the final volume deviating from predicted by the ideal gas law. m = : where Similarly, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. T a g P On the contrary Vs (volume saturated) is the volume a gas mixture would have if humidity was added to it until saturation (or 100% relative humidity). {\displaystyle U} l p n A polytropic process, in particular, causes changes to the system so that the quantity g Note that for specific polytropic indexes a polytropic process will be equivalent to a constant-property process. . Mechanical work performed on a working fluid causes a change in the mechanical constraints of the system; in other words, for work to occur, the volume must be altered. The product t 1 , or P l {\displaystyle T} − P Many other thermodynamic processes will result in a change in volume. Where, in addition to terms used in the ideal gas law: For example, calculating how much 1 liter of air (a) at 0 °C, 100 kPa, pw = 0 kPa (known as STPD, see below) would fill when breathed into the lungs where it is mixed with water vapor (l), where it quickly becomes 37 °C, 100 kPa, pw = 6.2 kPa (BTPS): V ) is the volume occupied by a unit of mass of a material. 2 k . It can be approximated both from partial pressure and molar fraction:[4]. ρ V is constant (where {\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {mL} }{\mathrm {g} }}} p a , 1 is the change in the volume of the gas, which can be calculated from the initial and final volume of the gas: Δ V = V final − V initial. K The specific volume, an intensive property, is the system's volume per unit of mass. Volume is a function of state and is interdependent with other thermodynamic properties such as pressure and temperature. {\displaystyle H} {\displaystyle pV} is the specific gas constant, The partial volume of a particular gas is the volume which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume, with unchanged pressure and temperature, and is useful in gas mixtures, e.g. Specific volume may be expressed in f delta, start text, V, end text. 6.2 In contrast to other gas components, water content in air, or humidity, to a higher degree depends on vaporization and condensation from or into water, which, in turn, mainly depends on temperature. − Vinitial. The specific volume of a substance is equal to the reciprocal of its mass density. u As with all conjugate pairs, the product is a form of energy. where, m − \Delta \text V=\text V_ {\text {final}}-\text V_ {\text {initial}} ΔV = Vfinal. is the density of the material. For instance, for very large values of 2 {\displaystyle pV^{n}} U T {\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {ft^{3}} }{\mathrm {lb} }}} t is volume, and K a p {\displaystyle P} {\displaystyle V_{l}=1\ \mathrm {l} \times {\frac {310\ \mathrm {K} }{273\ \mathrm {K} }}\times {\frac {100\ \mathrm {kPa} -0\ \mathrm {kPa} }{100\ \mathrm {kPa} -6.2\ \mathrm {kPa} }}=1.21\ \mathrm {l} }. k 3 Some common expressions of gas volume with defined or variable temperature, pressure and humidity inclusion are: The following conversion factors can be used to convert between expressions for volume of a gas:[3]. m A vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, for example, follows a sequence where the refrigerant fluid transitions between the liquid and vapor states of matter. The second law of thermodynamics describes constraints on the amount of useful work which can be extracted from a thermodynamic system. However, in a process without a constant volume, the heat addition affects both the internal energy and the work (i.e., the enthalpy); thus the temperature changes by a different amount than in the constant-volume case and a different heat capacity value is required. is the pressure of the gas. In general, compressibility is defined as the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure, and may be determined for substances in any phase. V (cubic meters), {\displaystyle m} V This fraction more accurately follows the ideal gas law.

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