The total cost of utilities was found using the energy outputs from HYSYS and known costs of natural gas, water, and electricity in Brazil from commodity indices and surveys from the Brazilian government. Due to the exothermic nature of the reaction, it is necessary to provide a quench gas stream. The reaction of the Ethylene Oxide and Water to form Ethylene Glycol is a non-catalytic reaction. Several different processes have been proposed for the conversion of glycerol to propylene glycol. H�\�Ak�0���:���ĒF-�@HZȡ���� Ǟd �l��z~��5������0�r���b?��= �^'s�c��2\S�栧>��t};}}���܌E����e��.���M��/S���u7��(�R���'s�g��7��:��z�8��Y�L��l�ڌ����r�=캼�O�������mTS��K�i�N/c�jj�I�z����_�*4v��;O����mRQW�y�ȯ̏�G�� �%o����̖Z�]����\�-ق=ك�,�@`f��`��"�]�י�u���������������������>�ˡ.OOO���=�=��#;0�=���jjZ�V�jZaNANa��z�99�99eCހ�Y�Y�A/䅜�^�PK`���� �؋�^f�/�ה`���m�)��������d�� o��b The catalyst must be replaced every 2 years, at a cost of 5.13 $MM (Basf.com; Lme.com; Sigmaaldrich.com). Figure 1. Alibaba.com [Internet]. Utilities prices for high pressure steam, medium pressure steam, and cooling water are $14.3/t, $12/t, and $.024/t, respectively (Towler and Sinnott, 2013). Products [Internet]. Indicative Chemical Prices [Internet]. 14.5% price premium on the selling price of ethylene glycol would achieve profitability of the process. Technology development for the production of biobased products from biorefinery carbohydrates—the US Department of Energy’s “Top 10” revisited. As shown in Figure 1, the supply of glycerol will continue to outpace the demand in 2014 at a growth rate of 2.5% per annum (Oleoline.com). The ability to isolate propylene glycol production from petroleum by using inexpensive glycerol as a feedstock would be hugely advantageous. This reaction alone accounted for approximately 65% of total glycerol production in 2011. These premiums will ensure a 15% IRR and an NPV of $10 MM. Midland: The Dow Chemical Company; c1995-2015b [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Mostly used for MEG production. Our goal is to design a plant that will produce 90,000 metric tons/yr. For each unit of biodiesel converted using this reaction, approximately 10% by weight will be recovered as by-product glycerol (Davyprotech.com). The price of feedstocks crude glycerol and hydrogen are $200/t (Alibaba.com; Bozell and Petersen, 2010) and $1100/t (Icis.com, b). ; c2015 [cited 2015 Feb 26]. United States patent 08394999 B2. Tuck MWM, inventor; Davy Process Technology Limited, assignee. Our current plans involve burning an effluent stream in which the key components are hydrogen, ethylene glycol and some fatty acids. However, there is definite room for expansion in the design; our low NPV values and high IRR values indicate the ability to leverage economies of scale and dramatically expand our profit margins. Corporate Tax Rates Table [Internet]. Surrey: Reed Business Information Limited; c2015d [cited 2015 Feb 26]. The price of electricity has been fluctuating recently due to lack of rainfall, and is taken as 0.202 $/kWh (Bloomberg.com, b). Oleochemicals: Oleon enters glycerin-based propylene glycol [Internet]. Available from: https://www.lme.com/en-gb/metals/minor-metals/cobalt/. Heat transfer between the two components improves the efficacy of the distillation tower, reducing the number of trays needed. Hydrogen gas is purchased at 187.8 °C and 5516 kPa. Kostick DS. High conversion. Dow.com. Our economic analysis has proven that the project as it currently stands is highly profitable and will bring in positive cash flow within three years. The main byproduct, ethylene glycol, is sold at 99.9 wt%. The waste stream is useful to remove any unwanted gasses that may accumulate over repeated reaction cycles. ��,�f����`6'�ddH����zMA����$[�U�"�#�zsA�/�f� �� ɿ]������00Ҝ����=@� ��e China to Lead PG Market Through 2017, According to Merchant Research & Consulting Ltd Study Available at MarketPublishers.com [Internet]. 2010 Apr;12:539-54. Reston: United States Geological Survey [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Glycerol Market By Source (Biodiesel, Fatty Acids & Fatty Alcohols), By Applications (Personal Care, Alkyd Resins, Polyether Polyols, Others), Downstream Opportunities (Propylene Glycol, Epichlorohydrin, 1, 3 Propanediol And Others) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Growth And Forecast 2012 - 2018 [Internet]. The process is modeled in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 using the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model as the fluid package, the results of which are shown in Figure 5. 0 The project NPV is most sensitive to the price of Propylene Glycol and Glycerol, which is expected as these are the main product and feedstock. If the price of heating fuel is taken to be $4.50/GJ (Interview with Dave Wegerer), this results in savings of $638.10/t H2 and $68/t Glycerol purge. Plant Design of Production of Polyester Grade Mono Ethylene Glycol Sunday, 10 April 2011. The overhead stream, containing 96 wt% water and balance C2 alcohols, is recycled. Continuing fluctuations in energy prices could greatly affect these estimates from year to year. [cited 2015 Feb 28]. The bottoms stream contains unreacted glycerol, ethylene glycol, sodium salts and other impurities. h�bbd```b``� London: The London Metal Exchange Limited; c2015 [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Surrey: Reed Business Information Limited; c2015e [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Global glycerine production in various industrial sectors. Engineering and contingency costs are taken as 10 and 15%, respectively, of combined ISBL and OSBL costs. Various political, economic, and environmental concerns over the past decades have led to a desire to decrease dependence on fossil fuels for energy. 768 0 obj <> endobj Gross profits are 8.1 $MM from year 4 onward and the project has a simple payback period of 2.6 years. The bottoms of V-102 contain water-free propylene glycol, which is then sent to V-103, another fractionation tower which will separate the desired product from the unreacted glycerol and other byproducts. Figure 6 below shows the approximated costs of each of the pieces of equipment calculated using Aspen Economic Evaluator v7.3.1. LLC. After an economic analysis the process was determined to have a 10 year NPV of 4.11 $MM and 20 year NPV of 7.9 $MM with respective IRR of 30% and 34%. The resulting liquid/gas mixture is sent to the fixed-bed reactor R-101. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: One Hundred Tenth Congress of the United States of America, Pub. The reaction is carried out at 225.6 °C and 5516 kPa with a 1.17 LHSV. Available from: http://www.icis.com/resources/news/2012/07/16/9577645/oleochemicals-oleon-enters-glycerin-based-propylene-glycol/. Cui F, Chen J, Xia C, Kang H, inventors; Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, assignee. Amsterdam: KPMG International Cooperative; c2015 [cited 2015 Feb 28]. hެ�mO�8���?�N��sZUj��I��Q8���!��ڈ6�Ұ���'�I7P�]��o㙱�dl! Surrey: Reed Business Information Limited; c2015c [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Based on the plant size, three shift positions with 4.8 operators per shift will comprise the operating labor. Transparencymarketresearch.com. Green Chem. London: Vocus PRW Holdings, LLC. Sigmaaldrich.com. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Once complex columns were simulated, these specifications were further optimized. �C���BZY+q���Pb:��@��l\u�"A~Q�ϟ�De�\�n��=� 'h;g��54g�tNm�]3�N˿�k�"J>��}��A�9Dt9Na��';�q���`1t�_�i������&��(�bKB/��{�hI[W��i^S�_�����3�`q�u��vTyL���H�P����Q��m�]�'Ǵ��)s)\2�ĩħ�J|��6̙pƼ���´'� ��h��ZX3��fM��2��^4ŧf�Z|j����Ԅ܈gÞ��5\�H]�u��5\׈��3��8&��E?c����� �u�[O/�sm�!�H�g�̒��9��4?x�,�ԯ W�� The results are presented visually in Figure 7 below. The reaction is carried out at 370 °F and 800 psi, which results in 85% conversion of glycerol with a 91% selectivity to propylene glycol, balance ethylene glycol. The catalyst utilized is a Pd/Co/Re on NORIT ROX 0.8, which provides an 85% conversion of glycerol, with a 91% selectivity to propylene glycol at the given operating conditions. Property and local tax and insurance are both typically 1% of ISBL plus OSBL Cost. The outgoing glycerol mixture is then mixed with compressed hydrogen gas in a 2.5:1 hydrogen to glycerol mole ratio. Bozell JJ, Petersen GR. The major components running through the equipment are not corrosive, except basic water. HAZOP STUDY A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and widely accepted methods of systematic qualitative hazard analysis. Method for Producing 1,2-Propylene Glycol using Bio-based Glycerol. Working capital is calculated as seven weeks Cash Cost of Production (CCOP) minus two weeks feed plus 1% of Fixed Capital Cost (Towler and Sinnott, 2013). The subsidy In this case an analysis will need to be done in order to determine the extent of the damage to the local air and if a purification step is necessary. ; c1997-2015 [cited 2015 Feb 28]. In this case, the recycled hydrogen comes in at 72.8 °C, which maintains the reactor temperature at 187.8 °C. The Glycol Feed Stripper bottoms going to the Glycol Reactor is preheated and flows through a 24” pipe reactor 633’ long. b. The reactor effluent contains propylene glycol, unreacted glycerol and other byproducts and hydrogen gas. Methods for Converting Glycerol to Propanol. As it stands, we recommend maximizing the NPV of the project with full scale optimization. Available from: http://worldweather.wmo.int/en/city.html?cityId=1081. d�� Temecula: SRS International; c2013- [cited 2015 Feb 28]. The reactor feed glycerol (including pre-treated and recycled glycerol) is at 23.16 °C and 5516 kPa and has a composition of 37.77 wt% glycerol, 54.42 wt% water, .77 wt% NaOH, 3.36 wt% sodium sulfate, 3.63 wt% methanol, and .04 wt% acetic acid (Bricker and Leonard, 2012). The results are presented below, in Figure 8. These methods all employ catalytic hydrogenolysis and proceed using the same general pathway, show in Figure 2.

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